The official establishment date of the institute is February 2, 1968; at that time, by decision of the State Committee on Science and Technology of the USSR Council of Ministers, the Institute of Physiology was established at the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR. However, the establishment of the institute originates from the opening in 1953 of the Department of Physiology at the Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences on the initiative of one of the prominent representatives of the School of Physiology in Azerbaijan, academician Abdulla Garayev. On the basis of the department, at the Presidium of the Academy, a sector was created, which was later transformed into the leading center of the Republic, where research in the field of human and animal physiology, now acting as the Institute of Physiology, was conducted. Currently, the institute is named after its founder and first director, academician Abdulla Garayev.
From the first days of activity at the institute, along with fundamental research aimed at solving urgent biomedical problems, research was also carried out that met the requirements of the development of agriculture in the Republic, and applied work using the country's resources:
Since 2015, the Institute has developed a comprehensive biomedical research program to study the physiological and molecular genetic mechanisms of aging. This multidisciplinary program is implemented with the participation of the Azerbaijan Medical University, Baku State University and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Azerbaijan in collaboration with the Institute of Gerontology and Bioregulation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Russia, the Institute of Gerontology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine and the Medical Center under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The structure of the institute includes the departments "Aging Biology", "Ecological Physiology" and "Neurophysiology". These departments conduct research on the following issues: "Molecular genetic and physiological bases of aging", "Physiological mechanisms of impact of environmental factors on living organisms and ways of correction" and "Neurophysiological and molecular bases of integrative brain activity."